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Writing More by Writing Less

19 December, 2014

A published novelist recently remarked on how little she writes daily. At first, I was surprised. But when I thought about it, writing less makes sense.

We’ve all read accounts of famous writers who work on their material nearly all day, everyday. When I read about them, two questions pop up in my mind. What have they let go of in their lives in order to gain so much time to write? And who helps them take care of the non-writing aspects of life—paying bills, cleaning house, making trip arrangements, buying groceries? Some of the most prolific writers have assistants or eschew social engagements and other non-writing activities.

This novelist said that her practice is to write 40 minutes. But she tries to do this each and every day.

She has her plot sorted out, so she has a good idea about what to write each day. But aiming for short but frequent writing can help other writers, especially ones who find it hard to free up time for their writing project. We may strive to free up a slab of writing time—a day or even a half-day—but rarely achieve this aim. But most of us can find 40 minutes in each day to write.

The main benefit of frequency rather than word count is that writing more often can help us settle into the writing groove. Leave too much of a gap between writing sessions, and we may end up spending time picking up the threads of our work before we can continue.

Daily writing also keeps the brain ticking over in terms of our work. Knowing we’ll be writing again tomorrow gets our subconscious or conscious focused on issues, characters, and developments that we may take up the next day. This works if the 40-minute period is not used for rewriting, but for moving forward to new ideas.

On the days that one’s writing is flowing, it would be tempting to keep going past the 40 minutes. For some writers, having a daily goal of writing at least 40 minutes may be more realistic. Feeling free to write more on the days when we feel we’re in the groove is one of the deep pleasures of writing and shouldn’t be ignored.  But that doesn’t mean we need to reward ourselves by not writing the next day.

Growing a New Writing Group

1 December, 2014


Are you looking for writing feedback? Like the idea of sharing ideas and techniques with other writers?  If so, joining a writing group may appeal.

The easiest option is to find an established group. It already has its structure sorted out, plus its members are used to the routine. If you join,  you’ll quickly find out if the way the group operates and its members interact suit you or not. But such groups may not publicise themselves, so they are difficult to find. They may not be actively seeking new members, or if they are, it may be invitation only.

The other option is to join a newly formed writing group. There’s no history or established rules to work within,  which may be good. The challenge with a new group is transforming a collection of disparate writers into a cohesive, supportive unit.

Fortunately, the development pattern of new groups has been a subject of research for many years. One important early finding is that any new groupwhether it deals with writing, lawn bowls, or world dominationtends to develop via four consecutive stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing.

Knowing these stages can help you understand what is going on in your brand-new writing group. And this knowledge may help you in terms of your expectations, plus hanging in there during the inevitable rough patches the group encounters as it matures.

Here’s how the four stages may play out.

1. Forming

A new group is fragile during its forming stage. Its members are not yet loyal, and their main concern may be what the group can do for them. The group faces instability, churn, with some people quickly exiting—sorry, not my thing—and new strangers taking their place. Group members may differ in terms of how they think the group should operate.

These different needs and expectations do not surface immediately. Why?

Members of a new group tend to be on their best behaviour, wanting to make a good first impression. Because they want to be seen as a valued part of the group, they may agree with issues that go against their true needs and feelings.

2. Storming 

The name says it all. The brief honeymoon is over.

As members become more comfortable in their group, they now want to have their needs met. Members’ different interests and agendas often lead to clashes.

Some common storming issues in a new writing group:

  • Time.  People taking more than their fair share of the discussion time. Too much meeting time spent on inconsequential matters, or late starts and long tea breaks becoming the norm. Members who chronically arrive late.
  • Feedback.  People giving feedback that is too general, negative or trivial. Or not giving enough feedback, such as ‘Yeah, liked it.’
  • Behaviour.  Not preparing for the meeting. Rewriting others’ material without permission. Dominating the discussion. Going to pieces when others critique one’s work. Undermining the group’s leader. Not accepting group decisions. Getting into a writing rut, I.e., revising work again and again, rather than providing others with new material for comment.

Although this stage is difficult, these differences can get members to start thinking about what’s important for the group and what may need to be changed or discarded.

3.  Norming

Storming can lead to one of these outcomes:

  • The group continues, after resolving major issues and accommodating differences where possible.
  • The group continues, based on majority rule, and dissenters opt out or are expelled.
  • The original group splinters, and members either opt out or join one of the splinter groups.
  • The group dissolves.

If the group continues, members begin to resolve differences and come to trust or tolerate others. Members realise they need to change in some ways in order to help the group, and they understand that it takes conscious effort to maintain group harmony.

To achieve such harmony, members may start talking honestly about their needs and expectations. It is useful to understand what each member 1) wants from the group, 2) is willing to do to help the group, and 3) will put up with. One person may want feedback, will help the group by attending nearly every meeting, and will put up with some less-produvtive members. Another person may value talking shop with others who are writing in a similar vein, will help out by taking on the role of the group’s contact person, and will accept that some members write stuff he’s not interested in.

4: Performing

If things go well, the group moves to this final, productive stage. Members now share a sense of unity and belonging. They become more involved and loyal, and actively help the group succeed. They may even get to the point of appreciating rather than tolerating others strengths and contributions. They trust the other members, may seek their help more than before, and they may socialise and perhaps become friends.

They now view their group as providing more benefits than drawbacks. When an issue or problem arises, they assess  how it affects them individually and how it affects the group–and they may put their own wishes to one side if the group benefits are more important. If the  group has no leader, one may be chosen or emerge at this point.

 Evaluating the experience 

If you join a new writing group, it may help to set a future review date, say, six months. Be an active member, and then, when the date rolls around, assess how your group is working in terms of helping you meet your writing goals. Even if you find that it isn’t helping that much, you may decide to stay because you enjoy other elements that the group provides, such as friendships, deadlines, and good discussions.

Prompt: Take Three

20 October, 2014

Writing about an unusual topic, with few expectations about what you’ll achieve, is a great warm-up exercise. It’s like practising your scales before starting to play a serious piece of music.

This  writing generator provides three nouns, selected at random. Use the words to spin a fictional story or connect with fact.

If nothing comes immediately to mind, brainstorm, jotting down the associations that come up for each word, and then see where these connections lead you.

I clicked the generator three times:



These three words suggest some possibilities–sci-fi, fantasy, bad dream, etc. I imagined a criminal named Monkey, involved in some crime where the sky’s the limit in terms of possible gains.



Three words led to a memory of strolling along one of the canals in Venice, in the Dorsoduro neighbourhood, and coming upon an old gondola workshop. The gondolas rested in cradle-supports, ready for the skilled workers to finish them.



These words also retrieved a memory, this time of a pleasant afternoon on a yacht in Sydney Harbour. Relaxing in the sun, I drank coffee and watched with amusement as the skipper/owner flirted with one of his guests. What happened next?



Writing Help: Dive or Wade?

24 September, 2014
like to drown

(Photo credit: Aimanness Photography)

To improve our writing, we have different help options to choose from—workshops, courses, teachers and mentors, books, blogs, websites. But with so many help possibilities, we can feel as if we’re drowning in possibilities.

How do you assess what best suits you?


Dive or wade?

Some writers like to dive straight into the help pool,  immersing themselves in many kinds of writing assistance. They zap through innumerable books, workshops, and websites. If they decide to try a writing group, they may join not one but several.

Some writers find it exhilarating to get their hands on so much information and help in a short period. For others, the informational deluge is confusing, stressful, and can lead to a loss of confidence.

Wading is a preference for some writers, and for others work and other commitments make it the most practical option. They start at the shallow, comfortable end of the writing help pool, perhaps reading a few relevant blogs and books, participating in a short workshop, attending a one-off lecture. As they grow more confident about their needs and interests, they strike out into deeper, adventurous water. They may enrol in a long-term course or sign up with a mentor. This approach is positive and does not overwhelm learners, but some find the learning process frustratingly slow.


Writing help works best when it fits your needs. Rather than focusing on cost and convenience, assess your

  • present capabilities
  • current interests
  • long-term  goals

Your present capabilities

What do you think are your strengths are as a writer? Where do you need to improve?


Your current interests 

Jot down the last five major items you have read.

You may be surprised. Some people daydream about writing poetry but tend to read modern novels. Others may decide to break into the potentially lucrative romance market, when the reality is that they are drawn to reading essays. And some don’t read at all.

With this knowledge, you can decide if you want help options that support your present writing interests, your future interests, or both.

What drives you, makes you passionate to write? Knowing your drivers can hep you identify the learning options that best suit you. Maybe you get a kick out of experimenting with ideas and storylines. Or capturing personal experiences. Or perhaps you like the technical challenge of a particular form. Or find research satisfying. Or discover reading your work out loud is the most enjoyable part of the writing process.

Your long-term goals

What do you ultimately want to achieve with your writing in terms of these outcomes:

* Skills 

* Material—books, poetry collections, screenplays, etc.

* Financial rewards—money, more or better career opportunities

* Recognition and readership—local, regional, national, international

How long do you expect to write? For example, once you’ve written your life story is that it for writing?  Or do you see yourself writing as long as you have the ability to do so?

What happens when you are faced with obstacles and lack of success? Setbacks make some people more determined to succeed. Others accept the obstacle—OK, I’ll never crack the NY Times best-seller list—modify their goals, and keep writing. And others stop writing and find another, rewarding interest.


Is it still . . . 

Whatever writing help you choose, regularly evaluate it to consider if it still meets your needs and interests.

Participating in a writing group may be useful at first, but as members come and go, you may find that its educational value for you has weakened. Continuing to join basic workshops may be comfortable but not challenge or provide new information.

For your chosen help option, ask yourself—

  • Is it still moving me closer to my writing goals?
  • Is it still helping me identify my writing strengths and weaknesses?
  • Is it still helping me become a more skilled writer?
  • Is it still providing other benefits, e.g.,  networking with other writers?

Ray Bradbury’s Zen Writing

13 August, 2014
full-length, facing left, with bow drawn, abou...

The archer  (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Ray Bradbury started early as a writer, penning his first story when he was 11 years old. He began the habit of writing each day and kept submitting his stories to popular pulp magazines. At 22, he succeeded in getting a story published. A long writing career followed, with 27 published novels, including the popular Fahrenheit 451and 600 short stories, including the collections The Martian Chronicles and The Illustrated Man. His writing helped shift the focus of sci-fi from the monsters from outer space to the scarier monsters within ourselves and our society.

Years later, as a famous, respected author, Bradbury distilled his thoughts about the writing in a series of essays, collected in the book, Zen in the Art of Writing. I recently read it and enjoyed his enthusiasm and confidence.

The title is based on a book, Zen and the Art of Archery, by Eugen Herrigel, a German philosopher. While teaching in Japan in the 1920s, he took lessons in Japanese archery, which combines physical and mental skills. One day, he discovered a  ‘shortcut’ that enabled him to hit the target, again and again. However, his teacher chastised him for relying on his ‘much too wilful will’ rather than functioning within a state of being ‘without purpose’, in the zen of the moment.

 In his essays, Bradbury, like a zen archer, focuses on process rather than product. Here are some of his views.

Get good story ideas

Your personal storehouse of ideas will provide your ‘individual truth’. Write about your best and worst experiences. Mine material from your childhood. Record sensory impressions and conversations.
Nearly all material can provide writing ideas:
  • Read the works of authors who write like you and the ones whose writing differs from yours.
  • Read poetry each day. Poems provide story ideas, expand your senses, and provide powerful, beautiful metaphors and similes.
  • Read practical non-fiction articles, but do so as a dilettante. Rather than trying to understand or learn, let your reading connect with your subconscious, your memories and beliefs. A travel article about an isolated beach may lead you to recall a childhood experience. Or start you brainstorming about what could happen there, and to whom and why.

Develop a rich, successful writing habit

Write daily.  In his early career, Bradbury set himself a daily target of 1,000 words and a weekly target of completing and sending off at least one short story. He suggests focusing on quantity rather than quality. When you develop a consistent, regular writing habit, you have a better chance of achieving the relaxed state that lets the words and ideas flow.
Write fast. Quick writing keeps you honest. Hesitate and you may end up letting stylistic elements subvert your story’s truth. Or you may become self-conscious and end up with stilted writing.
Write true. Move away from the conventional to find ‘honest’ ways to express emotions, such as love, admiration, excitement, hate.
Free associate. Draw up a list of words. Perhaps start with a list of nouns. Or list the titles of books, poems, and short stories. Each time you write, select a word or phrase from you list and begin writing whatever comes to mind.’Blurt’ your ideas in your first draft.  Don’t over-think. Don’t start editing prematurely.  Once you have a rough draft down, you can begin analysing and changing your material.

Write for readers’ needs

Bradbury believed that after the first draft, writers should shape their material by focusing on their readers’ needs:

  • Provide sensory richness. Help readers use their senses. Your story will seem real if you include rich sensory details—colours, shapes, sizes, smells, sounds, textures.
  • Energise your story. What do your characters want? What do they dream of doing, becoming?
    Knowing their focus helps readers understand your story’s dynamo or energy. Your characters will then develop much of the story for you. Incorporate:

    • Emotions and passions that drive your characters
    • Tensions, which come from conflicts and differences between your characters.  Bradbury writes about making characters ‘fly together in a great clang.’
  • Release. End a story with a crucial action that releases all the tension that has built up.  The action must also ring true in terms of your characters, and what they desire and need, or think they need.
Bradbury, Ray. (1990). Zen in the Art of Writing.
Herrigel, Eugen. (1953, pdf file of English translation). Zen in the Art of Archery.

Coincidence Can Ruin Your Story

16 July, 2014

Ticket coincidence

A few months ago, I was at nearby Lyrebird Dell, doing my monthly volunteer bush regeneration. While grubbing out invasive weeds, I found broken beer bottles, a pair of deteriorating panties, and this train ticket.

Only the ticket is memorable. Why? Because I pulled it out of the mud on 2 April, the same date as the ticket, although given the Monday date, it was probably issued two years ago.  What an amaaaaazing coincidence.

But what if I wanted to include a similar incident in a story? A woman is desperate for money to pay off a bad guy but can’t get the funds. She finds a dirty slip of paper—a lottery ticket. Checking the lottery website, she discovers it’s the winning ticket! Need more of a coincidence? How about if the day she finds the ticket is the deadline for collecting her winnings?

Coincidence works better in real life than in fiction. We’re like hearing about real examples.  Like an acquaintance who journeyed to remote Easter Island, only to run into a work colleague. We tell each other these true tales and comment on how amazing life is, six degrees of separation, fate, and so on.

But the allure of coincidence diminishes in fiction, particularly when it breaks the sense of authenticity readers expect. It’s not that writers eschew coincidence. It’s common in genre fiction such as crime novels, where it can help mislead readers.  In comic writing, coincidence can up the humour, as readers wonder ‘what else can possibly go wrong?’ In the movie The Great Muppet Caper, Miss Piggy needs to stop a jewel heist but is stranded on the side of the road. Guess what? A motorcycle fortuitously falls out of the back of a passing truck. As she puts it, it’s the  perfect most ‘unbelievable coincidence’.

If a movie or novel is fast-paced and/or complex, viewers and readers may not notice the coincidences piling up until later when they can reflect on the story. But use one ill-considered contrivance crucial to the plot, and readers can no longer suspend disbelief. Examples:

  • A character is looking for someone, and uncanny as it seems, that person shows up precisely when most needed.
  • Something (spaceship, car, boat, walking boots) malfunctions, threatening disaster. But lo and behold, the character has some little thingy that is exactly right to fix it, thus saving the roadtrip/escape plan/planet.
  • A note falls out of a book, and amazingly, it provides the most important clue. Or a character discovers the very information she has been searching for when she overhears two people discussing it.
  • Two individuals both fall in love with each other at first sight. (Contrast this with the richer story possibilities when one character falls in love and the other doesn’t know or care.)
  • A favourite from a forgettable movie I saw. A young woman spills something on her blouse and chooses to walk to the laundry, way at the back of a dark, spooky yard, to clean it, where, as fate would have it, the murderer waits.
  • A woman who takes an interest in a young woman’s career discovers that this person is the baby she gave up for adoption years ago.

How the above items play out depends on how awkwardly or cleverly they are slipped into the story. And my point is not that writers should never use a coincidence. But rely on it too much, or use one to to create an unbelievable revelation or plot twist, and your readers may give up.

If the incident is crucial to your story, you can foreshadow. Making your mild-mannered teacher suddenly go a killing rampage leaves readers bewildered. But if small examples of the teacher’s inability to control himself are included earlier, his later meltdown becomes plausible. Some movies and books do this very well, escalating the seriousness of each subsequent incident so that the final, major outcome makes perfect narrative sense.

Janice Hardy: What a Coincidence

Writer Unboxed: What a Coincidence

TV Tropes: Contrived Coincidence





Prompt: A Holiday to Remember

4 July, 2014
Girls competing in a watermelon eating contest...

Watermelon eating contest, July 4th, White Springs, Fl.         Credit: State Library & Archives of Florida

Today in Australia it’s the 4th of July. I celebrated the occasion with friends at a restaurant in Hartley Vale, with a lovely lunch in front of an open fire—great on this cold winter’s day. I asked everyone to wear something red, white or blue, and for the table centrepiece I brought two miniature American flags picked up last year when I was the 4th of July parade at Flagstaff Arizona, a sister city to Australia’s Blue Mountains, where I live.

Because the word HOLIDAY has many deep associations for most of us, it provides a writing prompt rich in possibilities. Have a go.

First, pick a particular holiday that you have personally celebrated.

Secondly, consider it from different perspectives, using the following prompts. Start freewriting or jotting down ideas. Either stick with one prompt, try several, or go through the whole list.

  • How was the holiday celebrated when you were younger? Be specific: foods, activities, traditions and rituals, the people involved, entertainment.
    Was there anything unusual about how it was celebrated?
  • Does any particular year for the occasion stand out? Why is it memorable? What did, or did not, happen that year? What was the outcome for you? For others?
  • How did you once feel about this holiday?  Why? Do you feel the same way now? E.g., Although I have great childhood memories of Christmas, a friend hates the holiday due to his father’s alcoholism.
  • Did the holiday change for you when you matured? As you moved from childhood to adolescence? In your early adult years? As an older adult?
    How has it changed, or not? Have some traditions been abandoned or revised in some way? How do you feel about the difference?
  • Have you ever been in a very different situation (e.g., different location, different people involved) during this holiday? If so, was the holiday celebrated traditionally, differently, or not at all? Why? How did you feel about this?
  • Do you think it important to commemorate this holiday? Why or why not? Who would think it important? Who would not?
  • Was this holiday particularly sad, comical, disturbing, or exciting one year? What made it so?
  • From your perspective, what’s the worst aspect of this holiday? What’s the best aspect?

Thirdly, go through your written results and highlight any items that jump out at you as strong and interesting. Then, drawing on these major items, try writing 500-1000 words.Maybe it will turn out to be a fictional story, a reminiscence, or an essay of sorts.



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